• All the sources you reference in the text should have an accompanying full reference in your References section at the end of your paper.
  • All entries in the References section should be mentioned in the text.
  • All quoted material should be accompanied by page numbers of the original source.
  • All book/chapter references should include first and last names and initials of all authors/editors, the year of publication, the title of the work, the place in which it was published and the publisher's name.
  • All references for journal articles contain the author's first and last names, initials, the year of publication, the article title, the journal name and its volume and issue numbers and the page numbers of the article.
  • All journal articles must include the Digital Object identifier in the format: https://doi.org/xxxxx.xxx/xxxx where the x's represent the doi details as provided by the originator.
  • All references in the References section must be in alphabetical and date order


Mentioning references in the text of your paper

You need to use references in the text of your paper to source material or ideas that are not your own. While you need a full reference in the references section, you need to use shorthand in the text.

  • In the body of your sentence or paragraph:

                                McCarthy and Byrne (2007) argue that:


  • Short mentions should be in brackets with no punctuation between the name(s) of the author and the date:

                              Some research suggests that: (Read and Clements, 2001)


  • If you refer to several authors of different works at the same time, they need to be separated by a semicolon and listed in alphabetical order:

                               (Attwood, 1998; Hall 2000; Willows and Swinton, 2000)


  • If there are three or more authors of a piece of work, just the first author with "et al." should be cited in the text.


  • If an author has written two or more works in the same year and you refer to more than one of them in your book then you need to label them "a" and "b" in accordance with how you have entered them in the References section:

                                                (Pritchard, 1999a, 1999b)

  • If you quote from someone's work then you must provide page numbers for the quoted material and always put the quote in double parentheses "like this".


Page referencing

  • In citations, the page number should be given after the quotation, with the year and "p. ", with one space between the full stop and the page number:

                                           (McCarthy, 2007, p. 45) or (2007, pp. 45-47)


  • Where the page reference is cited with the source, they are separated by a comma:

                                         (Willows and Swinton, 2000, p.45)


  • In References at the end, include pages numbers for journal articles only and without p. or pp. So it would just read: 8, (3), 223-245.


  • For an online document, please provide a page number where possible (e.g. for a pdf document) or a paragraph or chapter number if appropriate.


  • If you cite a work and you are not referring to the original edition then you need to include the original publication date as well:

                                          (Durkheim, 1964, first published 1893)


  • If you cite an online source in the text, please note that website addresses/URLs are not appropriate. Please provide a page number where possible if you are quoting for pdf documents:

                                          (Skills for Care, 2005)


Organising your references


  • Please list references in alphabetical order.
  • Include all first names.
  • Where a single author has written more than one work that you cite, please list these in date order.
  • Where the same author is the first-named author of several works, please list single author works first followed by joint authored or multi-authored works, in alphabetical order according to the last name of the second named author!
  • Notice that where an author has written two works in the same year they are labelled "a" and "b"(usually according to which was published first)
  • Journal articles usually have a DOI address (Digital Object Identifier). Please include in the format: https://doi.org/xxxxx.xxx/xxxx where the x’s represent the doi details as provided by the originator.


Journal article:

Reynolds, Vikki (2013). 'Leaning in' as imperfect allies in community work. Narrative and Conflict: Explorations in theory and practice, 1(1), 53-75. https://doi.org/10.13021/G8K018



Shotter, John (2011). Getting It: With-ness Thinking and the Dialogical…. In Practice. London: Hampton Press.


Chapter in Book:

White, Michael (1992).  Deconstruction and therapy.  In Experience, contradiction, narrative, & imagination: Selected papers of David Epston and Michael White, 1989-1991, Epston, David & White, Michael (Eds.). Adelaide, Australia: Dulwich Centre Publications. 


Multiple authors:

Smith, Jonathan; Flowers, Paul & Larkin, Michael (2009). Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis. London: Sage Publications.


Online sources should be referenced as follows:

Simon, Gail (2012). Relational Ethnography: Writing and Reading in and about Research Relationships. Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung / Forum: Qualitative Social Research, 14 (1). https://doi.org/10.17169/fqs-14.1.1735


Government papers and statutes:

Government papers should be references as follows (note that in this instant the government department is both the author and the publisher):


Department of Health (1998). Working Together to Safeguard: New Government Proposals for Inter-Agency Cooperation. Consultation Paper. London: DoH.


For the purposes of referencing a legal document the name of the statute or act functions as both author and title and is in italics.

Criminal Justice Act (1988). London: HMSO.


Newspaper articles:

Newspaper articles comprise the title and page numbers of the article, the name of the newspaper and the date:


Guardian, The (1990). “Doctors to decide right to die.” 24 June 1990, 17–19.


New editions of old works:

For new editions of books that have been published before you need to refer to the newest edition (the one a reader could find in the shops); in brackets please give the original date of publication:

Durkheim, E. (1964) The Division of Labour in Society. London: Collier Macmillan. (Original work published 1893).